COTW – Indian Scriptures*

Part 1: Creation of the World
Part 2: Creation of the World: Science
Part 3: Chronological Refrence
In the previous Part, we have read the creation of the world according to Bible (4004 BCE) and Science (4++ Billions years ago), now the time from our Scriptures. I will include the maximum references from history (Mahabharata and Ramayana), Puranas, Manuscripts and other works, and it will show us the world creation has done billions years ago, not just 4004 BCE as Bible says.
Major Puranas:

  1. Brahma Purana
  2. Padma Purana
  3. Vishnu Purana
  4. Shiva Purana
  5. Bhagwata Purana
  6. Narayana Purana
  7. Markandeya Purana
  8. Agni Purana
  9. Bhavishya Purana
  10. Brahma Vaivarta Purana
  11. Linga Purana
  12. Varaha Purana
  13. Skanda Purana
  14. Vamana Purana
  15. Kurma Purana
  16. Matsya Purana
  17. Garuda Purana
  18. Brahmanda Purana

The Upa-Puranas

  1. The Sanatkumara
  2. Narasinha
  3. Naradíya
  4. Siva
  5. Durvasasa
  6. Kapila
  7. Manava
  8. Ausanasa
  9. Varuna
  10. Kalika
  11. Samba
  12. Nandi
  13. Saura
  14. Parasara
  15. Aditya
  16. Maheswara
  17. Bhagavata
  18. Vasisht́ha

Another Set

  1. Sanatkumara
  2. Narasinha
  3. Nanda
  4. Sivadharma
  5. Durvasasa
  6. Bhavishya, related by Narada or Naradíya
  7. Kapila
  8. Manava
  9. Ausanasa
  10. Brahmand́a
  11. Varuna
  12. Kalika
  13. Maheswara
  14. Samba
  15. Saura
  16. Parasara
  17. Bhagavata
  18. Kaurma

There were five major religions in India at the time of Mahabharata and its writing. That is even prior to the advent of Shramika sects and the texts always followed the concept, Tryartho Veda. 
There are three meanings to each statement and you have to unite the three meanings to get at the great truth behind all the statements.
Each Sloka has an interpretation in each of these five panthas or paths and three layers or Arthas.
The Paths or Panthas are Pasupatya, Pancharatra, Samkhya, Yoga and Vedic. 
The arthas are Uparicharira (Transcendental), Astikadi (As-is or Historical) and Dharmik (religious). Over the thousands of years, buddhijeevis have been examining and understanding and commentating on each of the slokas and for example in the modern Krishna cult, the four main streams or sampradayas of Rudra Vaisanava, Kumara Vaisanava, Brhma Vaisanava and Sri Vaisanava have their own takes and understandings on each and every sloka. Then we also have the Bhakti and Vatsalya intrepretations.
जाकी रही भावना जैसी | प्रभु मूरत देखी तिन तैसी
धारणाद्धर्ममित्याहु: धर्मो धारयते प्रजा: |
यस्याद्धारणसंयुक्तं स धर्म इति निश्चय: ||
Dharma is derived from Dharana! Dharana or Holding society together. If something is able to hold people together, no doubt that is Dharma.
The Puranas are very categorical. We have lost a lot of original Puranas and original stories so we have few stories only of the Svyambhavu (“Self Born, self created”) Manavantara and few of Chakshusha , but mostly focused on this Manvantara, the seventh one.
One of the aspects of this unintentional or intentional editing of Pauranic Lore is that we do not need to concern ourselves about the stories of the past manvantaras. That is part of the lesson of the Karmic Chakra.
The mores and the intentions of society in past hoary ages do not needlessly concern us and especially should not consume us. The so called lost glories and lost faded gilt edged life of our distant ancestors is their karma, and their dharma. Not our Karma and not our Dharma. 
As Manusmrti clearly identifies, the dharma of the day is dynamic, energetic, it is vibrant and vigrous, it is self-fulfilling and it vibrates to its own frequency and tones.
The old dharma and old beliefs are like static stopped water in a muddy puddle which is only good for creating germs and diseases and we should avoid these diseases of the mind.
We have to create our own identity. Our own pehchaan! Our own way, our own journey and our own destinations. 
Well, we have to learn about the creation from our scriptures…  
Vishnu Purana describe the creation of the world

Before creations…………….

Brahma, supreme, lord, eternal, unborn, imperishable, undecaying; of one essence; ever pure as free from defects. He, that Brahma, was all things; comprehending in his own nature the indiscrete and discrete. He then existed in the forms of Purusha and of Kála. Purusha (spirit) is the first form, of the supreme; next proceeded two other forms, the discrete and indiscrete; and Kala (time) was the last. These four–Pradhana (primary or crude matter), Purusha (spirit), Vyakta (visible substance), and Kala (time)–the wise consider to be the pure and supreme condition of Vishńu. These four forms, in their due proportions, are the causes of the production of the phenomena of creation, preservation, and destruction. Vishńu being thus discrete and indiscrete substance, spirit, and time, sports like a playful boy, as you shall learn by listening to his frolics.
That chief principle (Pradhána), which is the indiscrete cause, is called by the sages also Prakriti (nature): it is subtile, uniform, and comprehends what is and what is not (or both causes and effects); is durable, self-sustained, illimitable, undecaying, and stable; devoid of sound or touch, and possessing neither colour nor form; endowed with the three qualities (in equilibrium); the mother of the world; without beginning; and that into which all that is produced is resolved. By that principle all things were invested in the period subsequent to the last dissolution of the universe, and prior to creation.
There was neither day nor night, nor sky nor earth, nor darkness nor light, nor any other thing, save only One, unapprehensible by intellect, or That which is Brahma and Pumán (spirit) and Pradhána (matter).

Creation time

The deity as Time is without beginning, and his end is not known; and from him the revolutions of creation, continuance, and dissolution unintermittingly succeed: for when, in the latter season, the equilibrium of the qualities (Pradhana) exists, and spirit (Puman) is detached from matter, then the form of Vishńu which is Time abides. Then the supreme Brahma, the supreme soul, the substance of the world, the lord of all creatures, the universal soul, the supreme ruler, Hari, of his own will having entered into matter and spirit, agitated the mutable and immutable principles, the season of creation being arrived, in the same manner as fragrance affects the mind from its proximity merely, and not from any immediate operation upon mind itself: so the Supreme influenced the elements of creation. Purushottama is both the agitator and the thing to be agitated; being present in the essence of matter, both when it is contracted and expanded. Vishnu, supreme over the supreme, is of the nature of discrete forms in the atomic productions, Brahmá and the rest (gods, men, &c.)
Then from that equilibrium of the qualities (Pradhána), presided over by soul, proceeds the unequal developement of those qualities (constituting the principle Mahat or Intellect) at the time of creation.

Note: The first product of Pradhána sensible to divine, though not to mere human organs, is, both according to the Sánkhya and Pauráńic doctrines, the principle called Mahat, literally ‘the Great,’ explained in other places, as in our text, ‘the production of the manifestation of the qualities:’ or, as in the Váyu, ###. We have in the same Puráńa, as well as in the Brahmáńd́a and Linga, a number of synonymes for this term, as, ###. They are also explained, though not very distinctly, to the following purport: “Manas is that which considers the consequences of acts to all creatures, and provides for their happiness. Mahat, the Great principle, is so termed from being the first of the created principles, and from its extension being greater than that of the rest. Mati is that which discriminates and distinguishes objects preparatory to their fruition by Soul. Brahmá implies that which effects the developement and augmentation of created things. Pur is that by which the concurrence of nature occupies and fills all bodies. Buddhi is that which communicates to soul the knowledge of good and evil. Khyáti is the means of individual fruition, or the faculty of discriminating objects by appropriate designations, and the like. Íśwara is that which knows all things as if they were present. Prajná is that by which the properties of things are known. Chiti is that by which the consequences of acts and species of knowledge are selected for the use of soul. Smriti is the faculty of recognising all things, past, present, or to come. Samvit is that in which all things are found or known, and which is found or known in all things: and Vipura is that which is free from the effects of contrarieties, as of knowledge and ignorance, and the like. Mahat is also called Íśwara, from its exercising supremacy over all things; Bháva, from its elementary existence; Eka, or ‘the one,’ from its singleness; Purusha, from its abiding within the body; and from its being ungenerated it is called Swayambhu.” Now in this nomenclature we have chiefly two sets of words; one, as Manas, Buddhi, Mati, signifying mind, intelligence, knowledge, wisdom, design; and the other, as Brahmá, Íśwara, &c., denoting an active creator and ruler of the universe: as the Váyu adds, ‘Mahat, impelled by the desire to create, causes various creation:’ and the Mahábhárata has, ‘Mahat created Ahankára.’ The Puráńas generally employ the same expression, attributing to Mahat or Intelligence the ‘act of creating. Mahat is therefore the divine mind in creative operations. The word itself suggests some relationship to the Phœnician Mot, which, like Mahat, was the first product of the mixture of spirit and matter, and the first rudiment of creation: “Ex connexione autem ejus spiritus prodiit mot . . . hinc seminium omnis creaturæ et omnium rerum creatio.” Brucker, I. 240. Mot, it is true, . appears to be a purely material substance, whilst Mahat is an incorporeal substance; but they agree in their place in the cosmogony, and are something alike in name. How far also the Phœnician system has been accurately described, is matter of uncertainty. See Sánkhya Káriká, p. 83.

The Chief principle then invests that Great principle, Intellect, and it becomes threefold, as affected by the quality of goodness, foulness, or darkness, and invested by the Chief principle (matter) as seed is by its skin. From the Great principle (Mahat) Intellect, threefold Egotism, (Ahankára), denominated Vaikaríka, ‘pure;’ Taijasa, ‘passionate;’ and Bhútádi, ‘rudimental,’ is produced; the origin of the (subtile) elements, and of the organs of sense; invested, in consequence of its three qualities, by Intellect, as Intellect is by the Chief principle. Elementary Egotism then becoming productive, as the rudiment of sound, produced from it Ether, of which sound is the characteristic, investing it with its rudiment of sound.
Ether becoming productive, engendered the rudiment of touch; whence originated strong wind, the property of which is touch; and Ether, with the rudiment of sound, enveloped the rudiment of touch. Then wind becoming productive, produced the rudiment of form (colour); whence light (or fire) proceeded, of which, form (colour) is the attribute; and the rudiment of touch enveloped the wind with the rudiment of colour.
Light becoming productive, produced the rudiment of taste; whence proceed all juices in which flavour resides; and the rudiment of colour invested the juices with the rudiment of taste. The waters becoming productive, engendered the rudiment of smell; whence an aggregate (earth) originates, of which smell is the property. In each several element resides its peculiar rudiment; thence the property of tanmátratá, (type or rudiment) is ascribed to these elements. Rudimental elements are not endowed with qualities, and therefore they are neither soothing, nor terrific, nor stupefying. This is the elemental creation, proceeding from the principle of egotism affected by the property of darkness. The organs of sense are said to be the passionate products of the same principle, affected by foulness; and the ten divinities proceed from egotism affected by the principle of goodness; as does Mind, which is the eleventh.
The organs of sense are ten: of the ten, five are the skin, eye, nose, tongue, and ear; the object of which, combined with Intellect, is the apprehension of sound and the rest: the organs of excretion and procreation, the hands, the feet, and the voice, form the other five; of which excretion, generation, manipulation, motion, and speaking, are the several acts.

Then, ether, air, light, water, and earth, severally united with the properties of sound and the rest, existed as distinguishable according to their qualities, as soothing, terrific, or stupifying; but possessing various energies, and being unconnected, they could not, without combination, create living beings, not having blended with each other.

Having combined, therefore, with one another, they assumed, through their mutual association, the character of one mass of entire unity; and from the direction of spirit, with the acquiescence of the indiscrete Principle, Intellect and the rest, to the gross elements inclusive, formed an egg, which gradually expanded like a bubble of water.
This vast egg, compounded of the elements, and resting on the waters, was the excellent natural abode of Vishnu in the form of Brahma; and there Vishńu, the lord of the universe, whose essence is inscrutable, assumed a perceptible form, and even he himself abided in it in the character of Brahma.
Its womb, vast as the mountain Meru, was composed of the mountains; and the mighty oceans were the waters that filled its cavity. In that egg, O Brahman, were the continents and seas and mountains, the planets and divisions of the universe, the gods, the demons, and mankind. And this egg was externally invested by seven natural envelopes, or by water, air, fire, ether, and Ahankára the origin of the elements, each tenfold the extent of that which it invested; next came the principle of Intelligence; and, finally, the whole was surrounded by the indiscrete Principle: resembling thus the cocoa-nut, filled interiorly with pulp, and exteriorly covered by husk and rind.

Affecting then the quality of activity, Hari, the lord of all, himself becoming Brahmá, engaged in the creation of the universe. Vishnu with the quality of goodness, and of immeasurable power, preserves created things through successive ages, until the close of the period termed a Kalpa; when the same mighty deity, invested with the quality of darkness, assumes the awful form of Rudra, and swallows up the universe. Having thus devoured all things, and converted the world into one vast ocean, the Supreme reposes upon his mighty serpent couch amidst the deep: he awakes after a season, and again, as Brahmá, becomes the author of creation.

Thus the one only god, Janarddana, takes the designation of Brahmá, Vishńu, and Śiva, accordingly as he creates, preserves, or destroys Vishńu as creator, creates himself; as preserver, preserves himself; as destroyer, destroys himself at the end of all things.

This world of earth, air, fire, water, ether, the senses, and the mind; all that is termed spirit, that also is the lord of all elements, the universal form, and imperishable: hence he is the cause of creation, preservation, and destruction; and the subject of the vicissitudes inherent in elementary nature. He is the object and author of creation: he preserves, destroys, and is preserved.

Age of Brahma…

Brahma is said to be born: a familiar phrase, to signify his manifestation; and, as the peculiar measure of his presence, a hundred of his years is said to constitute his life: that period is also called Param, and the half of it, Pararddham.
Fifteen twinklings of the eye make a Kashtha; thirty Kashthas, one Kala; and thirty Kalas, one Muhúrtta. Thirty Muhurttas constitute a day and night of mortals: thirty such days make a month, divided into two half-months: six months form an Ayana (the period of the sun’s progress north or south of the ecliptic): and two Ayanas compose a year. The southern Ayana is a night, and the northern a day of the gods.

15 Nimeshas = 1 Kashtha
30 Kashthas = 1 Kala
30 Kalas = 1 Kshana
12 Kshanas =1 Muhúrtta
30 Muhúrttas = 1 day and night.

In the Mahabharata, Moksha Dharma, it is said that thirty Kalas and one-tenth, or, according to the commentator, thirty Kalas and three Kashthas, make a Muhúrtta. A still greater variety, however, occurs in the Bhagavata and in the Brahma Vaivartta P. These have,

2 Paramanus = 1 Anu
3 Anus = 1 Trasarenu
3 Trasarenus = 1 Truti
100 Trutis = 1 Vedha
3 Vedhas = 1 Lava
3 Lavas = 1 Nimesha
3 Nimeshas = 1 Kshana
5 Kshanas = 1 Kashtha
15 Kashthas = 1 Laghu
15 Laghus = 1 Narika
2 Narikas = 1 Muhúrtta
6 or 7 Narikas = 1 Yama, or watch of the day or night.


  1. Swayambhuva
  2. Swarochi or Swarotisha
  3. Uttama
  4. Thamasa
  5. Raivata
  6. Chackchuska
  7. Vaivasvata, son of Vivaswan, the current Manu, we are in the 28’th Kali Yuga
  8. Savarna
  9. Daksha Savarna
  10. Brahma Savarna
  11. Dharma Savarna
  12. Rudra Savarna
  13. Rouchya
  14. Bhoutya

Yugas Name:

  1. Sata or Krita Yuga
  2. Treta Yuga
  3. Dwapra Yuga
  4. Kali Yuga

Twelve thousand divine years, each composed of (three hundred and sixty) such days, constitute the period of the four Yugas, or ages. They are thus distributed: the Krita age has four thousand divine years; the Treta three thousand; the Dwapara two thousand; and the Kali age one thousand: so those acquainted with antiquity have declared. The period that precedes a Yuga is called a Sandhya, and it is of as many hundred years as there are thousands in the Yuga: and the period that follows a Yuga, termed the Sandhyansa, is of similar duration. The interval between the Sandhya and the Sandhyansa is the Yuga, denominated Krita, Treta, &c. The Krita, Treta, Dwapara, and Kali, constitute a great age, or aggregate of four ages: a thousand such aggregates are a day of Brahma, and fourteen Menus reign within that term.
Seven Rishis, certain (secondary) divinities, Indra, Manu, and the kings his sons, are created and perish at one period; and the interval, called a Manwantara, is equal to seventy-one times the number of years contained in the four Yugas, with some additional years: this is the duration of the Manu, the (attendant) divinities, and the rest, which is equal to 852.000 divine years, or to 306.720.000 years of mortals, independent of the additional period. Fourteen times this period constitutes a Brahma day, that is, a day of Brahma; the term (Brahma) being the derivative form. At the end of this day a dissolution of the universe occurs, when all the three worlds, earth, and the regions of space, are consumed with fire.
The dwellers of Maharloka (the region inhabited by the saints who survive the world), distressed by the heat, repair then to Janaloka (the region of holy men after their decease). When the-three worlds are but one mighty ocean, Brahma, who is one with Narayana, satiate with the demolition of the universe, sleeps upon his serpent-bed–contemplated, the lotus born, by the ascetic inhabitants of the Janaloka–for a night of equal duration with his day; at the close of which he creates anew. Of such days and nights is a year of Brahma composed; and a hundred such years constitute his whole life. One Pararddha, or half his existence, has expired, terminating with the Maha Kalpa called Padma. The Kalpa (or day of Brahma) termed Varaha is the first of the second period of Brahma’s existence.
 The first creation was that of Mahat or Intellect, which is also called the creation of Brahma. The second was that of the rudimental principles (Tanmatras), thence termed the elemental creation (Bhuta serga). The third was the modified form of egotism, termed the organic creation, or creation of the senses (Aindríyaka). These three were the Prakrita creations, the developements of indiscrete nature, preceded by the indiscrete principle. The fourth or fundamental creation (of perceptible things) was that of inanimate bodies. The fifth, the Tairyag yonya creation, was that of animals. The sixth was the Urddhasrotas creation, or that of the divinities. The creation of the Arvaksrotas beings was the seventh, and was that of man. There is an eighth creation, termed Anugraha, which possesses both the qualities of goodness and darkness.
Of these creations, five are secondary, and three are primary. But there is a ninth, the Kaumara creation, which is both primary and secondary. These are the nine creations of the great progenitor of all, and, both as primary and secondary, are the radical causes of the world, proceeding from the sovereign creator.
Swayambhuva Manu detail from Brahma Puaran
Saptrishi and son of Brahma in Swayambhuva – Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulatshya and Vashishtha
Son of Swayambhuva Manu – Agnidhra, Agnibahu, Medhya, Medhtithi, Vashu,, Jyotishman, Dhutiman, Havya, Sabal, Auor
Other details in next part..
Swayambhuva Manu detail from Vishnu Puaran…
Priyavrata and Uttanapada were the sons of Swayambhuva Manu
Dhruva was son of Uttanapada.
Priyavrata married Kamya, the daughter of the patriarch Kardama, and had by her two daughters, Samrat and Kukshi, and ten sons, wise, valiant, modest, and dutiful, named Agnidhra, Agnibahu, Vapushmat, Dyutimat, Medha, Medhatithi, Bhavya, Savala, Putra, and the tenth was Jyotishmat, illustrious by nature as by name.
These were the sons of Priyavrata, famous for strength and prowess. Of these, three, or Medha, Putra, and Agnibahu, adopted a religious life: remembering the occurrences of a prior existence, they did not covet dominion, but diligently practised the rites of devotion in due season, wholly disinterested, and looking for no reward.
Priyavrata having divided the earth into seven continents, gave them respectively to his other seven sons. To Agnídhra he gave Jambu-dwípa; to Medhatithi he gave Plaksha-dwípa: he installed Vapushmat in the sovereignty over the Dwipa of Salmali; and made Jyotishmat king of Kuśa-dwípa: he appointed Dyutimat to rule over Krauncha-dwípa; Bhavya to reign over Saka-dwípa; and Suvala he nominated the monarch of the Dwipa of Pushkara….
More in next part……
Total Number 12000 Devine Years for one Chaturyuga…

Yugas Years of Yuga Sandhya Sandhyansa Days in one Years Mortals Years
Sata Yuga 4000 400 400 360 1728000
Treta Yuga 3000 300 300 360 1296000
Dwapara Yuga 2000 200 200 360 864000
Kali Yuga 1000 100 100 360 432000
Age of Chaturyuga 4320000
Chaturyuga 1000
One Kalpa Age *Years 4320000000

These calculations of time are found in most of the Puranas, with some additions occasionally, of no importance, as that of the year of the seven Rishis, 3030 mortal years, and the year of Dhruva, 9090 such years, in the Linga P. In all essential points the computations accord, and the scheme, extravagant as it may appear, seems to admit of easy explanation. We have, in the first place, a computation of the years of the gods in the four ages.
Note: COTW (Creation of the World)
        *= Part 1
Shree Hari…
Deepak Kumar Jha (A Learner)

Post Author: Arjuna The Victor

Mahabharata Lover & Rama's servant - I'm a devotee of Nara (best among the Men) & Narayana (best among the God) the supreme soul and master of the universes. I'm a common man with desire of learning like Arjuna himself. You may follow me on my blog - Arjuna The Victor & Quora as a Mahabharata lover.

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